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عنوان دسته بندی مقالات
Pen name : Ahmad Afshar, Gholam-Hossain Norouzi, Ali Moradzadeh, Mohammad-Ali Riahi
In this paper, a novel method based on Cokriging systems, as a geostatistical estimation tool, for 3D inversion of gravity data using a 3D volume of data is introduced. In this method, the density of causatives bodies is primary variable and 3D gravity data are secondary or auxiliary variable. The primary variable is estimated by solving Cokriging systems. To increase depth resolution of data, the measured data are upwardly continued to produce a 3D data set that is used for the required covariance matrixes. The efficiency of the proposed inversion method was tested firstly using a synthetic model. The results confirm the high ability of the method. In order to evaluate its practical efficiency, it was performed to invert Garmab sodium sulfate mine gravity data in the Semnan province, Iran. The obtained results indicate that the position, geometric dimensions and density distribution of the recovered 3D model, is highly consistent with the available borehole data. Considering the flexibility of the proposed method in using additional secondary variables, such as the borehole or other geophysical data, this method can be used to reduce uncertainty in inversion and to find solutions close to geological reality. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Seyed Mohammad Hosein Hashemian,Seyed Amir Abrishamifar,Ali Broumandnia
One of the important steps for conducting feasibility studies of an ore deposit is grade estimation. Usual grade estimation methods such as geostatistics or inverse power of distance have some problems which cause usage of them with much difficulty. To remove those problems in this paper, we suggested the new hybrid with applying a multi layer perceptron (MLP) network which its parameters such as threshold functions, the number of hidden layers, and number of neurons in each hidden layer are optimized by genetic algorithm To evaluate our method, we compared its performance with ordinary kriging in grade estimation of Delkan iron deposit. The obtained results show the proposed method has higher mean square error regard to ordinary kriging method in this study. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Mohammad Lotfi, Behzad Tokhmechi
This paper discusses one of the major challenges in fractal simulations. This challenge is to measure the fractal dimension in the surface space. For this purpose, more than 72,000 synthetic data have been generated that their pattern are self-affine. To investigate this issue, in the first stage five categories of orthogonal alignment were considered differently. The difference between these five categories is at their angles. In the next step, the fractal dimension was measured in each of these directions. What is certain is the dependence of the measurement of the fractal dimension to the desired direction. The results are shown that if the fractal dimension is measured in both arbitrary orthogonal directions on the surface and the results will be summed up with the dimensional topology, robust fractal dimension will be achieved independent of direction. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Farajollah Kiani Bourujeni /Kimia Kiaei/ Amin Joudaki
Water management is the most critical challenge throughout the world. However, if professionally look after and control the limiting resource some of the threats may change to opportunities and Iran is located in a semi-arid area with population growth, high rate urbanization, high industrial demand for water and high rate in wasting water. Therefore, water management issues should watch out and control seriously and professionally. In this paper, water management indices and develop a new method in wastewater treatment will be reviewed and will compare it with other ordinary methods, and finally will introduce a proper model for treatment of filtrate, which is output of sludge filtration process in Esfahan Steel Company (ESCo) in Iran. All steps including research, feasibility study, lab tests and pilot plant design and construction for sludge pressure- filtration process carried out by Kian Madan Pars Company, Tehran, Iran. Obtained Results show after modification of dewatering unit water loss decreased by 90 percent in amount and it cost only 0.66 U$/ton. Production cost will decries to 3.11 U$/ton of sludge. Payback period is 22 months after commencement of execution phase of project by saving money in operation costs. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Seyed-Hani Motavalli-Anbaran, Ali Jamasb, Khadije Ghasemi
In this work, a semi-3D map of Zagros Moho boundary is estimated using the Bouguer anomalies of EIGEN-6c4, a combined global gravity model. The Zagros is divided into four sections in the SW-NE direction perpendicular to the Zagros strike. Each section has a total width of ~1.5 degrees in which the Bouguer data are stacked by averaging over several parallel SW-NE profiles crossing the Zagros. This scheme introduces a sense of 2.5D modeling to the inversion procedure. Four non-linear inverse problems are then formed and solved using a group of stochastic optimization methods to maintain a diversity in the solution space. In each section, the best solution is chosen based on the misfit of the data and is presented as the final solution. However, stochastic optimization methods produce several solutions, all of which provide a satisfactory misfit within the acceptable threshold for data misfits. This issue indicates the non-uniqueness of gravity data and is exploited here to form an ensemble of acceptable solutions. Therefore, instead of a single solution, an interval is presented at each calculation point which together with all the points along the profile form an equivalent region for the depth to the Moho boundary in Zagros. Based on the results of the inversion, Zagros has a mean crustal thickness of ~55 km. The mean thickness of the crust slightly increases SE to NW. Overall, the thickness of the Zagros crust correlates well with the topography indicating a fairly established local (i.e. Airy) isostasy equilibrium. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Azar Afshar Savat, Abbas Bahroudi, Mohammad R. Ghassemi, Mahasa Roustaei
There are a many identified apparent (open) and hidden salt structures in the Zagros fold-thrust belt and its Foreland basin. This salt structures come the oldest evaporates deposits of the world which are hidden under several kilometers of sediments and they have brought themselves to the surface or almost near that by different mechanisms. Halokinesis exists since the early Paleozoic. The annual rise of salt in the salt diapir is different, depends on the flow forces and structures support and also a connection with salt feeder. Various morphology of salt diapir are formed due to rate of salt rise. Valuation of these morphologies, provide the relative classification of rise salt in obvious salt diapirs. For this purpose, 17 salt diapirs of southern Zagros were chosen and the morphologies were analyzed. We identified meaningful indicators depended to salt rise velocity in diapirs, which include following: Diapir form, Diapir fountain streams erosion period, Fountain height the salt glacier level, Salt diapir fountain area, Salt glacier streams erosion period and Salt glacier area. At the end, we used the Delphi statistics method to convert morphology indexes to number. Subsequently, total range of diapir’s activities was calculated by summing the indexes values and the results shows that Mesijan diapir is the most active salt diapir with a fountain in the region and Gena, Anguru, Kurdeh, Khorgu, Finu, Ghezeh, Ghach, Siah-Tagh and Hormmoz salt diapirs following that in the ranking. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Marziye Soleymani, marziesoleimani1368@gmail.com
Iran has a promising potential for geothermal energy and this renewable energy can replace fossil fuels in future. Some largesclae studies have introduced Kerman Province to have a high geothermal potential. In this paper, a preliminary reconnaissance exploration of geothermal potential is performed for Sarcheshmeh mine region using remote sensing and aeromagnetic data. Thermal anomalies were detected temperature difference between day and night. Using aeromagnetic data, Curie depth was calculated and ranged 2.59 km to 7.31 km in the area. Thermal anomalies were in good agreement with shallow Curie depths, being approved by Badbakhtkooh volcano, hot springs, faults, travertine and hydrothermal alteration in the potential zones. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Idarmachev Sh.G., Cherkashin V.I.
The present paper validates the feasibility of the method of dipole electrical sounding of the earth's crust to control fault zones and earthquake focus based on the analysis of the results obtained by means of the electric sounding method in various regions of Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Mohammad Hossein Adabi
The combination of petrographic, elemental (Ca , Mg, Sr, Na, Mn and Fe) and isotope (δ18O and δ13C, 87Sr and even 34S) studies can be used for better understanding of diagenetic history (marine, meteoric and burial), original carbonate mineralogy, tropical, temperate and polar settings, sequence boundaries, MSF, boundaries between formations, system tracts, unconformities, carbonate characteristics (such as marine composition, temperature, salinity, PCO2 level), origin, provenance and tectonic settings of siliciclastic rocks, exploration for ore deposits, hydrothermal alteration and source of ore fluids, origin of dolomite, time of dolomitization, fluid composition, diagenetic trend, age of sediments and interpretation of sedimentary environments. Geochemical studies are mainly related to several factors such as temperature, fluid composition, original mineralogy, oxidation and reduction, sedimentation rate, seawater composition, metabolic and kinetic effects and digenesis. In Eocene deposits biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and microfacies, along with diagenesis and geochemistry (elemental and isotope) have been studied. In this abstract only diagenesis and geochemistry (elemental, oxygen, carbon and Sr isotopes) of Eocene deposits will be discussed. Five outcrop sections of Eocene deposits (Hamzeh Ali, Shalamzar, Farsan, Zefreh and Soh) with a total thickness of 1547 m and with age of Bartonian and Priabonian, have been studied. First three outcrop sections are located in High Zagros, while, last two sections (Zefreh and Soh) are located in Sanandaj-Sirjan active tectonic zones. In Sanandaj-Sirjan sections there are many cross cutting veins, fractures, vuggy and channel porosities, makes some conduit systems for passage of fluid flow for cementation particularly in burial diagenetic realms. In Zefreh and Soh sections, cementation and dolomitization are more widespread than Zagros sections and mostly occurred in burial diagenetic environments. In high Zagros sections, due to wackestone and packstone low energy facies, cementation is less abundant. In spite of abundant cementation in Zefreh and Soh sections, porosities are abundant in terms of size and distribution. Some voids and fractures are more connected in Sananaj-Sirjan than High Zagros sections. In these sections, 164 carbonate samples were analysed for major and minor elements and also for oxygen and carbon isotopes. 45 samples were also analysed for age determination by Sr isotopes. Results of geochemical analysis indicate that Eocene deposits have mean Sr values similar with recent tropical carbonate, indicating similar original aragonite mineralogy. The high Sr/Na>1 also support this conclusion in five sections. Thus, Eocene Sea has original aragonite mineralogy. In Sanandaj- Sirjan sections, Sr value is lower than Zagros sections, due to open diagenetic system. However, the average of Na value in Sanandaj-Sirjan sections is higher than Zagros sections because of volcanic activity, particularly in Soh section. In Farsan section, high Na value is due to biological fractionation and type of organism in the Eocene pelagic basin. This is the only exception in Zagros sections. The Mn and Fe values in Sanandaj-Sirjan sections are higher than the high Zagros sections, possibly due to open diagenetic system, higher input of siliciclastic debris or leaching of volcanic rocks. Sr/Ca versus Mn in Zagros sections indicate that these sediments affected by non-marine diagenesis in closed to semi-closed systems, possibly due to tectonic fractures, cross cutting veins and vuggy porosity. Sr/Mn versus Mn also support open diagenetic system or higher alteration or dissolution in Soh and Zefreh sections. Plots of 18O versus 18C isotope values suggest original aragonite mineralogy for carbonate in Eocene sea. Diagenetic trend based on 18O and 18C values support meteoric inverted –J-trend for Farsan, Shalamraz and Soh sections, but organic burial diagenetic trends for Zafreh, and Hamzeh-Ali sections. Paleo-temperature calculated based on 18O water of -0.85‰ for Eocene sea and heaviest 18O value of samples in five sections given an average temperature of 28°C, which is early diagenetic temperature. Temperature calculated based on heaviest 18O value in Shalamraz (-1.7‰), Farsan (-1.9‰) and Soh (-2.9‰) give an early diagenetic temperature, while in Hamzeh Ali (-3.7‰) and Zafreh (-7.4‰) sections give shallow burial temperature, since all Eocene sediments have been affected by non-marine diagenesis. Sr isotope is an excellent tool for age determination of carbonates, phosphate, dolomite, evaporates and unconformities, particularly for last 40 million years of Cenozoic sequences, with one million years accuracy in stratigraphy. Sr isotope is more accurate than biostratigraphic zonation, particularly for those sediments with low fossil abundances. In recent years application of Sr isotope in stratigraphy is called S.I.S. Since Sr isotope does not any isotope fractionation and even in some unstable minerals like aragonite, Sr isotope of final mineral is similar to original ones. Age determination based on Sr isotope in all five sections is Priabonian- Bartonian. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Zahra mohamadi , Mansour ziaii , Mahdi ziaii
The studied area is on the two part of Moaleman and Kalatah Reshm 1:100,000 geological map which is located in Alborz-magmatic belt, north Iran. By using satellite image, alterations can be well identified. The PCA model is utilized for separation of different parts of alteration zones due to their intensity.The pixel values were computed by PCA method which used to determine iron oxides, phyllic, argillic, propylitic, carbonate and silification alteration zones. The Sentinel-2A data set reveal for iron oxides alteration zones. The aim of this study is determination and separation of alteration zones using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) model based on remote sensing data which has been extracted Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Sentinel-2A. The obtained results based on two data set show the main trend of the alteration zones is in NE-SW direction. As a result, in compare with geological map of study area and copper and Pb-Zn mineralization deposits, the alteration zones have been detected properly and correlated with the occurrences deposits, intrusive rock and faults. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Ali Ghorbani -Mehdi Honarmand -Hadi Shahriari
In this research, rock units in the area of lead and zinc Gojer mine, located at the north of Kerman province were delineated using nighttime thermal images of ASTER sensor. The major rock units of the area are carbonates, shale, red iron-bearing sandstones and evaporate. At first, temperature and emissivity were separated using the Reference Channel method. Then, rock units were enhanced using band ratio, principal component analysis, sequential maximum angle convex cone and spatial angle mapping methods. Principal components analysis did not present satisfactory results. 10/11, 13/14, and 14/11 band ratios were successfully performed to identify rock units. The results of spectral angle mapping based on the extracted endmembers sequential maximum angle convex cone method showed fine adjustment to field data ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Mansooreh Majidi &Mohamad Tatar
By employing different crustal models and solving the Focal Mechanism (FM) of earthquake data with the polarity (SEISAN) and waveform inversion (ISOLA) method, we inspected the effect of the crustal model on the accuracy of the FM. We made use of the Cyclic Scanning of the Polarity Solutions (CSPS) method to find the best FM’s, which have been solved using the first motion solution method, and are in the most similar to the output of waveform inversion results. Six sets of CSPS method were similar to the inversion solution. We determined the best solutions of these six sets and have displayed them via FaultKin code, and have employed the Bingham Method to calculate the FM. In this way we have overcome the non- uniqueness of the polarity method, and have acquired the same strike/dip/rake, which was obtained the inversion method. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Reza SABER, Veysel ISIK, Ayse CAGLAYAN
Abstract: Landscapes result in a combination of tectonic and climatic forces. The differential displacement of the land by tectonic processes changes the elevation of the surface of the earth's crust, and thus affects the rate of geomorphic processes. Tectonic and geomorphic processes are very tightly connected and their results are intertwined. The present study aims to assess the tectonic activity in the Aras Valley situated within NW Iran, South of Azerbaijan and Armenia on the basis of several relevant geomorphic indices. We use digital elevation model and topographic maps in geological information system to compute the geomorphic indices. High hypsometric integral value (Hi: 0.23-0.66), low mountain front sinuosity values (Smf: 1.08- 1.41) and low valley floor width ratios (Vf: 0.14-11.03) suggest that study area is tectonically active. Moreover, prominent irregularities (knickpoints) along the longitudinal profile of the Aras Valley even in homogenous resistant lithology and anomalous stream length gradient index (Sl) values reflect that the Aras Valley is dissected by the Aras Fault Zone trending NE-SW and Pambak-Sevan-Sunik Fault Zones trending NW-SE in the region. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Arash Shabanpoor Haghighe: Tayebeh Mohtat Masoud Zamani pedram Lida Bakhshandeh Seyed hamid Vaziri:
In this study the Upper Cretaceous sediments in the Zagrous Basins Fars province,the Pyrgheib Section,for the purpose of Biostratighraphy studies were investigated. These sediments with about 174 m thickness consist of Limestone, Shale, marly limestone . The investigated foraminifera led to identification of 45 species of planktonic foraminifera that belong to 14 genera. Based on planktonic foraminifera the Upper Cretaceous deposits were divided into 6 biozone which are cosmopolitan and respectively are:biozone1 - Dicarinella concavata Interval Zone,Biozone2- Dicarinella asymetrica Total Range Zone,Biozone3- Globotruncanita elevata Partial range zone ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Ehsanolah Nasehi
This section being north of Yazdanshahr,northeast Zarand(Kerman,central Iran). Litology of studied section consist of light to dark gray fossiliferous limestone with abundant brachiopoda. Three local biozone has distinguished consist of: 1)Bipennatus bipennatus, Icriodus Assemblage Zone. 2)Polygnathus varcus, Icriodus Assemblage Zone. 3)Polygnathus incomplitus Assemblage Zone. First biozone base on abundant of Icriodontidae and Eugenathodontidae similar to world biozone Early to middle Devonian has been detected(Sibzar Formation). Scound biozone with appear of Polygnathus varcus is middle Devonian (Givetion). Third biozone with appear of Polygnathus incomplitus with Ancyrodella is Late Devonian (Frasnian).sedimentary environment has been shallow water to open marine (inner carbonate platform) (sweet 1988, flugel 2010). ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Majid Ghasemi Siani1, Behzad Mehrabi1, Behrouz Karimi Shahraki1
Sangan mining area is the world-class iron ore district in northeastern part of Iran. Dardvay anomaly is developed along the contact of Sarnowsar granitic rocks with impure carbonate in central part of Sangan mining area. Dardvay anomaly comprises of exoskarn, endoskarn and ore zones. The endoskarn zone is limited while exoskarn is extensive zone and includes sub-zones of pyroxene skarn, and garnet skarn close to intrusive body and epidote- phlogopite skarn beyond the intrusive body. Amphibole in the Dardvay anomaly was formed in granitoids and skarn zones. Amphibole of granitoids is a Mg-rich hornblende in which Si=6.64 to 6.94, CaB>1.5, (Na K)A<0.5, and Mg/(Mg Al) ratio between 0.99 to 1.00. Skarn amphibole are mostly developed during retrograde stage of skarn evolution, and are classifies in three groups: (1) The actinolite-tremolite rich amphiboles have a narrow range of Si content (between 7.92 and 8.00 Si atoms per formula unit), and Mg/(Mg Al) ratio between 0.84 and 0.99; (2) Magnesiohastingsite have Si content (between 6.02 and 6.07 Si atoms per formula unit), CaB>1.5, (Na K)A>0.5, Al1.5, (Na K)A>0.5, and Mg/(Mg Al) ratio between 0.80 and 0.81. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Mohammad Naim Eqrar Former dean of geosciences faculty ,Professor of Kabul University, and member of Supreme Council of Water and Land of Afghanistan
One of the most urgent challenges for 21st century is to ensure sustainable food and water security in the face of population and income increased a changing climate, and growing demands for scarce water resources. This enormous challenge, which has significant political, environmental, social and economic implication, plays itself out in different ways and different contexts. Afghanistan unfortunately falls in the group of countries highly exposed to negative consequences of climate change. The impacts of climate change are thus expected to include an increased frequency and severity of climate- induced disasters such as flooding, drought, landslides, glacial lake outflows and extreme climate variability. The expected increase of precipitation in Afghan territory is expected to lead to increased volumes of snowmelt in spring, resulting in flash floods and associated landslides. Droughts have historically always been a frequent occurrence in Afghanistan. To find out the proper solution for current natural hazards, it better to collect require data and information the past years, compare and analyze to the current data and climate change events and find the reasonable solution . Water availability in Afghanistan is largely influenced by population growth, climate change, and alteration in the land use pattern because of the rapid urbanization and change in industrialization. By 2030, Afghanistan water demand is projected to increase by 40% mainly due to growing demands agriculture, industry, mines, generation of hydropower, domestic consumption, and environmental requirements. Competing demands impose difficult allocation decisions and limit the expansion of sectors critical to sustainable development particularly in terms of food production. The competition of water use among the water users increases the risk of localized conflicts and continued inequities in access to services with significant impacts on economic development in Afghanistan. While Afghanistan increasingly needs to take initiatives in order to tackle its forthcoming water scarcity challenge, and to mitigate the devastating effects of droughts and floods, it cannot ignore the regional dimensions of its internal water management. As the majority of Afghan Rivers are shared with several downstream riparian countries, major development projects in Afghanistan’s river basins will have to take into considerations the potential consequences for its neighbors. Engaging dialogue through appropriate institutional platforms should be encouraged to avoid unnecessary tensions. Furthermore, the foreseen increasing surface water demand driven mainly by population growth logically puts an increasing stress on the supply-demand balance. Predictions show that some River Basins such as the Helmand and Harirod will pass below the scarcity threshold within few decades, while the Northern Basin will face absolute scarcity in the very near future. Dealing with this issue will involve improved water productivity via better efficiency of water use for food production but also, possible, improved supply via storages and dams. Mainly glaciers are concentrated in the highest parts of the five major basins, very few direct observations of the glaciers have done, most of locations were identified through maps and satellite imageries, detailed maps do not exist for most of the glaciers because of poor accessibility and security. Groundwater, which has traditionally been developed and utilized for irrigation purposes through the use of Karezes, springs and shallow hand dug open wells should also be seriously be considered as a priority for development and protection. Despite an overall positive picture in terms of availability/use balance, analysis show that in some River Basins, over- extraction is already happening. The Afghan government needs to establish a cohesive platform for stronger collaboration and coordination between Afghan technical staffs, academia, policy makers and neighboring countries. The aim is to identify the existing needs, gaps of knowledge, expertise, skills with modern technology and these sharing expertise and knowledge gaps are being explored to understand feasibility of implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) for sustainable management of water resources across the basins. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Asal Zavarei, Nader Fatianpour
In order to make a reliable decision in a profitable mining operation, it is necessary to obtain a precise estimates of the ore grades and tonnage. Due to the nonlinear and irregular structures caused by secondary mineralization patterns, separating ore-waste boundaries is complex in mineral exploration industry. One of the most common methods for estimating grade is Kriging-based geostatistical methods. Simple and ordinary krigings are linear kriging methods, as the indicator kriging is nonlinear kriging.Since the two-point variograms are the basis of all kriging methods, these methods can not accurately map the inherent complex and nonlinear structures. Contrarily, the multiple point geostatistical methods are developed to simulate and model nonlinear and complex structures through training images which represent the ore content spatial variability and structures over the entire deposit. The purpose of current research is to investigate the possibility of recovering the regional scale variability of ore content up to third-degree curvature structures using simulation based Filtersim algorithm and comparing the results with the estimated linear and nonlinear kriging methods.To do so, Sarcheshme copper deposit was ed. The results indicate that Filtersim algorithm can produce relatively precise ore grade estimations through E-type estimates of simulated realizations which are in agreement with regional structural patterns embedded in training images. Finally, the estimates obtained through Filtersim simulations have better accuracies than those of linear and nonlinear kriging estimates by means of mean squared and root mean square error statistics. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Reza Aram; Faraz Soltani; Hossna Darabi
A lot of dust is generated during the transfer, storage and homogenization operations in the Jajarm alumina production plant. In this paper, advantages/disadvantages of some strategies for controlling and collecting dust have been introduced and the most suitable solution is presented according to the existing conditions of the bauxite warehouse of Jajarm Alumina plant. The results showed that the most important factor in the production of dust in the plant is the amount and height of bauxite fall into storage. Also, the amount of produced dust by scraper (outlet bauxite) is much less than that of the material fall. Another reason for the accumulation of dust in the southern part of the warehouse is the openness of the southern doors of the warehouse. Between 60% to 84% of the storage dust is composed of particles finer than 10 micron, which simply enter the lung. The average amount of dust accumulation in the warehouse during one week is proportional to the input and output bauxite and equals to 0.19 gr/cm2. Results showed that, considering the Jajarm plant requirements, dry methods should be considered for further investigation. Among the existing methods, the use of a drum- mixer system is more suitable for collecting bauxite dust the homogenization unit of the alumina production plant. The main advantage of this method in comparison with other methods is that it has been used in asphalt industries for many years. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : M. Asadi, F. Soltani, M. R. Tavakoli Mohammadi, A. Khodadadi, M. Abdollahy
The concentration of oxide ores containing a huge amount of carbonates is one the main challenging issue in the copper industry. Highly acid consumption and the high cost of organic extractants have questioned the economic point of the hydrometallurgical process, especially for low-grade reserves. In this research, flotation method was employed to concentrate a copper oxide silicate-carbonate ore (malachite) with a grade of 3.1%. Low efficiency of the method due to the copper distribution of about 40% in -38 μm size fraction (slime), lead to the implementation of a multi stage sulfidation-frothing technique for successful flotation. With this operational innovation, recovery of 81.15% with a grade of 9.28% was obtained at the rougher stage with the addition of 1500 g/t sodium silicate, 1540 g/t sodium sulfide and related preparation time of 5 min and 100 g/t PAX collector. In the following, the concentration of 91.8% for rougher concentrate in the cleaner stage results in a 24% copper concentrate with total recovery of 74.5%. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Fakhraddin Kadirov, Rafig Safarov, Samir Mammadov
Shen (Shen et. al, 1996) method has been applied to the GPS measurements results in order to investigate crustal deformation of the Azerbaijan and surrounding areas. The field of velocity vectors obtained the results of the GPS measurements conducted 1998-2012 time period in Azerbaijan, İran, Georgia and Armenia used to estimate the deformation rates. Compression observed along the Greater Caucasus, Gobustan, Kura depression, Nakhchivan and the border areas with Iran. Compression axis shows that reduction of the Earth's crust in the Greater Caucasus happens towards N-NE direction. The maximum value of the strain rate of about 200 × 10-9 per year was observed in the area between points KHID (Khidirly) and SHIK (Shikhlar) and here compression axis changes direction to the SW-NE. Along with areas of contraction in the deformation field, there is a evident area almost no deformation. Such zones are the Pre-Caspian-Guba region and northern Gobustan. Extension zones are observed in the Lesser Caucasus: in Gedabey (GEDA), Shusha (SHOU) areas and in the area located between the points DAMO and the PIRM, the dilatation rate reaches 100 × 10-9 per year. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : sara esmaeilian, saeed madanipour, shahram shafie bafti
Kuhbanan Fault is one of the most important intra-continental faults in Central Iran. This fault has a dextral right-lateral mechanism with reverse component. The Bazargan Fault is the southern fault of a set of transcompression faults separated the termination of the Kuhbanan Fault.It can also be considered as a segment of Kuhbanan fault, which has a thrust mechanism. Reconstructing the deformation conditions of these fault zones can unravel kinematic evolution history of them in more detail. The calcite e-twin generally can reflect the latest semi-ductile low temperatures surface deformation event in fault zones. A microstructure study on calcite e-twins can provide useful information on the temperature of the fault zone as well as an approximate estimate of deformation depth in fault zone. We used calcite e-twin analysis to reconstruct deformation conditions of the Kuhbanan Fault and its related fault zones including Bazargan and Kerman Fault zones. The results indicate that the Bazargan Fault deformation condition which represent larger thrust component is higher than the Kuhbanan Fault We also proposed that, the observed discrepancy between the depth of the deformation and the calculated stratigraphic separation the fault zones might reflect dominant strike slip component along Kuhbanan and Bazargan Faults during their kinematic evolution. Keywords: Kuhbanan Fault, calcite e-twin, geothermometric, stratigraphic separation ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Navid Qavim,Mahdi Najafi,Najmeh Etemad-Saeed
The Mahneshan basin is located in the foreland of the Alborz Mountains, northwest of the Zanjan province. The basin was filled by about 4 km of the Upper Red Formation deposits during the Miocene. This folded sedimentary sequence is separated the Eocene volcanic basement, along the middle Miocene evaporates, forming a 15 km width fold-and-thrust belt, trending N145, which extends over 75 km in length. A synthesis of remote sensing mapping, field survey and cross-section constructions permit us to figure out the structural geometry and evolution of the Mahneshan basin. Results indicated that diapirism of the salt-bearing Upper Red Formation evaporates and coeval basement faulting constitutes the major deformation mechanisms of the Mahneshan basin through the Neogene time. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Mohammad Lotfi , Shojjaedin Niroomand, Hassan Mirnejad, Hossein Tajeddin,Ehsan Moghaddamali
The Sanandaj-Sirjan zone can be considered one of the most potent areas of Iran for the exploration of orogenic gold ore deposits, which host many common types of gold deposits. The Shanagh gold deposit is located in the middle part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, 50 km north-east of the Muteh gold mine, and is considered the first deposit after the Muteh gold mine complex in the central part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Mostly, mineralized zones related to faults. Following the alignment of veins and ore zones in the region with the fracture system and major faults (E-NE Trend), this implies the important role of tectonic structures to the formation of mineralization. The maximum length of the veins is about 200 meters and the thickness is 80 centimeters. The maximum grade of gold in these veins is 7 ppm. Based on field observations and microscopy studies, the rocks of Shanagh region are divided into three groups of volcanic rocks, igneous rocks and sedimentary units. According to the mineralogical studies, the most common ore minerals are, respectively, pyrite, hematite, goethite, and chalcopyrite and invisible Gold. Due to oxidation, Hematite is often altered to goethite. In order to determine the characteristics of ore fluid and the temperature and pressure of the formation of ore, the fluid inclusions studies were performed using 45 samples. After microthermometric studies, it was proved that the mineralization was carried out by a solution with heterogeneous origin at the phase separation stage. Given the geological conditions of the deposit and the physical and chemical properties of the fluid inclusions, ore-forming fluid with a magmatic-metamorphic origin (such as other orogenic gold deposits) is suggested for the formation of the Shanagh gold deposit. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Kiarash Pashna, Dr. Mirsaleh Mirmohammadi, Dr. Omid Asghari, Dr. Faramarz Doulati Ardejani
Geometallury tries to predict and estimate some major in minor parameters which affect mining process, its exploration to mineral processing procedure. The results of every geometallurgical approach includes response variables, informing complicated natural or unnatural issues during resource excavation e.g. environmental or mankind problems. Acid rock drainage is one of the major environmental issues nowadays become necessary to be discussed in every feasibility studies. This acidic solution derived the destruction and dilution of Fe-bearing and S-bearing minerals in nature. ARD production is unstoppable and will dilute most minerals in its path flow like galena and sphalerite. These weakened minerals release huge amount of rious metals like Cd, Zn and Pb. What the authors intend is to create new strategy of AMD assessment and estimate the amount of acidic solution in resource or reserve. Hereby, influenced parameters on this variable shall be chosen carefully regarding to the limited information available at the first steps of resource exploration. After completing major assessments, pyrite abundance has been estimated in three dimensions using Sequential Indicator Simulation. By considering some extra information. 60 Geometallurgical samples have been ed for future tests and evaluations. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Ajayebi, Kimiya Sadat
In our country, geology is one of those scientific fields which are unknown. This ignorance leads society to some problems, for instance lack of knowledge about geology makes fear and even sometimes chaos during earthquake, volcano and landslide occurrences. Creating new methods and using interdisciplinary sciences help society to have more knowledge about geology. This knowledge makes more understanding; understanding leads people to appreciation and through appreciation, geo-conservation would happen automatically. On the other hand, there is no general perception of direct income basic sciences. Promoting earth sciences and different methods of using stones and minerals is also a way of making earth sciences more familiar in the society; for example using stones and minerals as interior design elements or as ornaments. As well as, holding the geo-tour guide training courses could be useful to hold scientific tours to make people more aware about earth science beside entertainment. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Mohammad Azarafza - Akbar Ghazifard - Ebrahim Asghari-Kaljahi
This study aimed to investigate and assessment the effects of mineralogical characteristics on physical and geotechnical parameters of clayey soils (fine grained alluvium) in the South Pars zone which mainly related to weathering of marls of Mishan and Aghajari formations. In order to evaluate of relationship between mineralogical and chemical features with engineering properties of studied area, some laboratory tests (grain size analysis, hydrometery, Atterberg limits, specific gravity and direct shear tests) and chemical analysis (XRF, Sulfate-Chlorate contents, organic material content and pH) tests were conducted. The tests are carried out based on ASTM standards and the results been classified. With using the regression and statistical analysis, the relationships and variables interactive pattern of these results are determined. According the results, the clays minerals contain the Smectite group (highest), Illites and mixed layer clay with some Kaolinit. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Ramezani1, F., Hosseini Barzi 2, M., Honarmand 3, J., Sadeghi 4, A.
Khalij carbonate member has been deposited in the middle of Gadvan Formation and is 7-15 m thick in Abadan Plain. Core and thin section study of this member in the well number 1 and 2 in Abadan Plain caused to recognition of 5 microfacies that have been deposited in an open and restricted lagoon of inner ramp. Total and effective porosities are heterogeneous in this interval. Clustering of total porosity and effective porosity in MATLAB software caused to assessment of 4 distinct zone. Zone 1 is a grain dominated facies with connected moldic and less intra particle porosities, zone 2 is dolomitized mud- dominated facies, Zone 3 is mud- dominated facies with fractures Zone 4 is a mud/grain- dominated facies with moldic isolated porosities. Genetic classification of these zones shows that zone 1 is hybrid 1 (depositional and diagenetic), zone 2 is diagenetic, zone 3 is hybrid 3 (depositional and fracturing), zone 4 is hybrid 1. Porosity in this interval have been affected by depositional environment and diagenesis through the time. Some of this processes played a role for increasing or decreasing of reservoir quality. Among these processes fracturing and dolomitization have a great role to increase the effective porosity and permeability. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Mohammad Akhoondi, Gholamabbas parsapour, Ehsan Salajegheh, Gholamreza Biniaz
In the flotation circuit of the Sarcheshmeh copper complex, two column flotation cells (412 m) are used in the final cleaner stage. In these cells, the upper surface of each column divided into four equal parts (sectors) by collecting launders of concentrate and the local froth height are measured in these sectors. In column cells control of some important parameters such as froth height, air flowrate, federate, sparger conditions, and etc. is very important. The processing audit showed that in some cases there are very different (up to 30 cm) between froth heights of four sectors of a cell, that with unblocked of all air pipes, spargers and also same feed distribution into two feed pipes is resolved. Therefore, to determine the impact of each of these parameters on the difference between froth height of the sectors, with sophisticated blocking (close the valve of spargers) on each of the spargers and feed pipes the froth height at various sectors were measured. The results showed that blockage of a sparger reduced about 10 cm the froth height in the upper sector of the sparger. Also in the case of blockage of two or three spargers, in the next upper sectors froth height were reduced up to about 25 cm. Thus the blocked spargers can be identified using measuring the difference between the froth heights in different sectors. It also became clear that with blockage of a feed pipe, the froth overflow the corresponding sector is ruptured and also the froth level is fixed at approximately 15 cm lower than column edge. ...
Presentation : The lecture
Pen name : Ehsan salajeghe1, Gholamabbas parsapour2,mohammad akhoondi1 and Abbas akbari3 1M. Eng. Student of Mineral Processing, University of Vali-e-asr, Rafsanjan, E.salajeghe73gmail.com 2Assistant Professor of Mineral Processing, Department of Mining Engineering,
In the flotation of sulfide minerals, particularly in the separation between pyrite and chalcopyrite, adjustment of the pH and the dosage of chemical reagents is very important. Therefore, in this research, using the process auditing, the values of these parameters in the processing plant No.2 of the Sarcheshmeh copper complexes were considered and corrected. Process auditing at this plant showed that the pH value in the rougher cells was greater than 12 and in the cleaner cells it was less than 12, while according to the initial design, the pH value in the rougher cells should be 11.5 and in the cleaner cells should be 12. Also, it was found that the dosage of collectors and frothers were 21.6 and 25.1 g/t respectively, which is much lower than the initial design. Hence, in this study in a period of 40 days the pH in the rougher cells was decreased and in the cleaner cells was increased and the dosage of chemical reagents was increased. The results showed that by adjusting the pH in the range of 11.5-11.7 and increasing the amount of collectors to 29 g/t the copper recovery was increased about 1%. Finally these modifications were increased the plant benefits about 12500$ daily. ...
Presentation : The lecture
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